Glossary of Astronomical,
Cosmological, and Space Terms
Anisotropies – When we observe the microwave sky we find that the temperature of the CMB is not exactly the same in all directions: it is anisotropic. There are small fluctuations in the temperature across the sky at the level of about 1 part in 100,000: so noted as the microwave background temperature anisotropies.
Arena of Space – A volume of space, larger than our Universe, with or without matter; may exist before the Big Bang. Perhaps infinite in any or all directions (see Flat Space), however the measurement of any size larger than our Universe requires technology not limited by the speed of light; beyond our ability as of this time.
Evidence of space beyond our Universe is provided by the “Black Sky” seen in the Hubble Deep Field Survey. See picture at: http://www.AllNewUniverse.com/book_jacket.html
Assumption – The act of taking for granted as true the imagined concept. We must make an assumption as a starting point for investigation. But all assumptions must be noted as such, to promote investigation when theory does not match observations.
Big Bang – An explosive event IN SPACE that created all the matter composing our Universe and carried out by inertia.
There are various contributors to this concept. These include a definition of NOTHING, quantum fluctuations, Einstein’s special relativity, and Harald Fritzsch’s observations and the requirements of galaxy formation.
Note: NOTHING provides no medium for quantum fluctuations, which require a vacuum, and a vacuum requires an "arena of space."
Positive contributions are found in Einstein’s special relativity which identified the equivalence of matter and energy with his famous equation e = mc2. That equivalence may go in any direction, as so noted by Harald Fritzsch, who writes “Einstein’s equation describes not only the transformation of matter into energy but also the inverse process – the transformation of energy into matter. It is possible, for instance, to produce particles of matter through the collision of particles of light, or photons.” We then have: m = e/ c2
Consequently, the energy found in material-less space provides the source for the conversion of energy into matter known as the Big Bang. Further, an explosion in Space provides the perfect medium for Galaxy Formation.
For physical proof of Sven’s Big Bang Model See: http://www.AllNewUniverse.com/article10.html
BLACK SKY: We can just barely glimpse black sky or empty space as noticed in the Hubble Space Telescope’s – Deep Field Survey taken in December, 1996 and Hubble’s Deep Field – South – October, 1998.
to a time before galaxy formation,’ said Richard Ellis
of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, England.
‘We’re seeing a black sky before galaxies.’
‘This is the best picture we have yet of the early universe,’
said Mario Livio of the Space Telescope Science Institute."
As reported in the Chicago Tribune 5/9/97.
See also "Arena of Space".
CMB or CMBR – Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This hydrogen gas radiation: ionized, neutralized by recombination, reionized, and polarized, is showering our Earth equally from all directions, isotropically coming from the furthermost parts of our Universe. The small variations in temperature, felt on different sides of our earth, provides a measurement of our motion thru our Universe. Currently measured at 375 miles per second. See picture at: http://www.AllNewUniverse.com/thebook.html
Ionized – Having lost one or more electrons from an atom.
If the atoms of a gas have lost one or more electrons, they are said to be ionized. The gas in the early Universe is believed to have been ionized until about 300,000 years after the Big Bang. Since ionized gases interact very strongly with photons, the photons of the cosmic background radiation could not move freely until after about the first 300,000 years.
Recombined – When the Universe recombined and became transparent, 300,000 years after the Big Bang. The hydrogen gained its lost electrons as the gas cloud cooled below a billion degrees, enabling the atomic nuclei to hold onto free electrons to become neutral hydrogen.
Reionized – Inhomogeneous reionization is due to stellar sources most likely quasars found next to the outermost onion layer of hydrogen shot out from the Big Bang explosion. In a universe reionized in patches, the Doppler effect from Thomson scattering off free electrons generates secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies.
CMB Polarized – Polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background is found. University of Chicago and University of California, Berkley, researchers have confirmed that light from the Cosmic Microwave Background is polarized. Light waves can become polarized, or aligned, by reflecting or scattering off a surface, or when there are temperature gradients such as in the primitive universe.
Using Sven’s model, we find that the CMB is coming from the outermost layer of hydrogen reflecting light from the next inner layer of galaxies and quasars and perceived as Polarized CMB.
Cosmological Principle – An assumption that says since Earth is no longer the center of our solar system, Earth has no unique place in our Universe, and that any theory that says otherwise must be flawed. This is a philosophical position (a fancy name for an assumption) taken without evidence.
This is a great example of going from one extreme to another.
Cosmology – The story of how our Universe came into being and where it is going.
Cosmology Today – (excluding this web site) – "We know much, but understand little". This is the position reported to the Chicago Tribune by University of Chicago cosmologist Michael Turner on page 22 section 1 Editorial on "The end of the universe, cont’d" dated 2/21/2003. The reason that cosmology understands little is due to many separate theories, built on assumptions that deny a cohesive view of our Universe.
Only Sven’s Model eliminates unsupported assumptions and explains all the many facets of our Universe. The biggest problem for cosmology is that Galaxy Formation is impossible using the Cosmological Constant, Dark Energy, or Expanding Space – three unsupported assumptions.
Creation of Space – This philosophical position formed by 20th century cosmologists suggests that, since we cannot measure conditions prior to the Big Bang epoch, nothing existed prior. They assumed that the Big Bang created Space. – This creation from “nothing” is unsupported by any laws of physics, observations, or logical reasoning. Needs limited Curved Space for support – not found.
Curved Space – Space must be curved if Space was created from nothing. Sir James Jeans in 1932 insisted that since the math behind relativity theory said that Space was curved, then Space was curved. Well, math is a language used for abstractions as well as for reality – not proof.
If space was created from nothing that means Space must grow from some sort of starting point. Space must be curved in some manner, as it grows, unless it popped instantaneously infinite in size, which no one supports. – Today, no Curvature of Space found and everyone is looking.
Density of Hydrogen one second after Big Bang – 1/100 that of water. – Very thin.
Expansion of Space – Noted by the increasing distances between galaxies. This is easily explained as the movement arising from an explosion in Space. See Big Bang.
A 20th century assumption that says galaxies don’t move but rather the Space between them is growing/expanding. – This ignores the needs of "Galactic Formation." Further, we have no physical evidence of Space Expansion seen by any lab experiment. See also gravity.
Energy – "We have no knowledge of what energy is." Says Richard Feynman.
Feynman’s observations – "We have no knowledge of what energy is.” and related to energy he notes: "…an enzyme (or catalyst) you see, does not care in which direction the reaction goes, for if it did it would violate one of the laws of physics.” If we can reverse Einstein’s equation then we will have m = e/ c2 or the creation of matter from a lot of energy.
Flat Space – Virtually all 21st century observations using earth based or orbiting sensors find that Space is flat and extents straight out in all directions as far as we can determine. Light rays may curve around large masses, due to gravity, but Space itself is not curved. See also Light Rays and: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/2000/boomerang.html
Galactic Formation – Needs a non-expanding medium for the very thin “Density of Hydrogen” to freely combine. This formation used very weak gravity to build the approximate 100 billion galaxies seen in our Universe from hydrogen gas that was created in the Big Bang Explosion. Cannot build galaxies in "Expanding Space."
Galactic Velocities in Space – Best described as inertia, a state of motion initiated from the Big Bang’s explosive push.
Gravity – A force that is weaker than the so-called “Expansion of Space” should it exist. Expansion is evidenced by the explosive speeds of all the galaxies moving away from us on Earth. More than half of the galaxies seen have speeds exceeding 50% that of light. This Expansion of Space force denies an environment for Galactic Formation. Inertia from the Big Bang Explosion in Space provides both a medium for Galactic Formation and explosive speeds.
Homogeneity – In the concept of curved and created space, homogeneity is the property of finding every view from every galaxy to be similar and no Black Sky. This suggests that a beam of light going off in one direction carried far enough will return to its starting position from the other direction. This concept is another unsupported assumption. See Onion like Distribution.
This homogeneity could only exist in Curved Space – Absolutely no evidence of Curved Space ever found.
Hydrogen – the basic building blocks of Galaxy Formation – thin as air 4 seconds after the Big Bang. Too thin for gravity in this state to form galaxies using the Cosmological Constant, Dark Energy, or Expanding Space. A non-expanding medium works the best – see Big Bang.
Infinite density and temperature – Other wise known as the singleton existing at the start of the Big Bang. What a paradox! Infinite density has mass so dense that allows no movement. Infinite temperature means that every component of mass is moving at the speed of light. Total incompatibility. See Big Bang for best explanation.
This is not the description of a black hole that has such a great gravity pull that prevents light from escaping.
Infinite Space – A volume of Space beyond measurement in any or all directions. The measurement of any size larger than our Universe requires technology not limited by the speed of light; beyond our ability as of this time. See also Flat Space.
Inflation – A description of Space growing from a singleton point (the paradoxical state of mass having infinite density and temperature). A growing of Space, faster than the speed of light, that does not subscribe to any known laws of physics. Another assumption with many problems.
Inertia – Property of a moving body to continue moving at the same speed in the same direction – or of a static body to remain static – unless and until acted upon by some force for change. A basic law of physics.
Isotropic – Having equal and uniform properties at any one distance but in all directions. Our Universe is like a spherical onion surrounding us, as viewed from Earth. We see each layer in every direction containing unique forms of galaxies, such as mature spirals nearby and quasars very far away.
Light Rays – Bend in the presence of a sufficiently large mass. First proposed by Newton in his treatise on Optics in 1704. The calculation of such bending made by Henry Cavendish around 1784 but not published. Also calculated by Johann Georg von Soldner in 1801. And today we recognize this bending is due to gravity not by curvature of space.
Mathematics – A great language and like any language may be used to describe emotions as well as ideas – truths and philosophies – facts and fiction. We must be very alert to distinguish what math is telling us. Math by itself is not fact!
Matter – "To tell the truth, we still don’t understand what light and matter, with their atoms and particles, really are." Fritzsch, Harald. An Equation That Changed The World.
Medium – An intervening thing through which a force acts or an event is produced.
Nothing is: The absence of Space.
The absence of Time.
The absence of Matter.
The absence of anything.
Does not equal a "vacuum." A vacuum requires an "Arena of Space."
These absences deny a "medium" or mechanism that could provide the “spontaneous” creation of anything let alone the Big Bang and 100 billion galaxies.
Onion like Distribution – Our Universe may be imagined as a spherical onion containing a number of layers. Our Universe viewed from earth puts us very near the center of an onion because every direction viewed is the same or isotropic. Each layer is unique. We find large well-formed spirals nearby, many small irregular protogalaxies far away – no quasars nearby. The CMB is coming from the outermost layer. This distribution is best explained by a Big Bang Explosion in Space.
Quantum Fluctuations – Tiny particles that pop into existence out of "nothing." This theory only examined in a vacuum. We have no way of testing any theory that requires "nothing" as a "medium." This is noted as the beginning of "Inflation" via a singularity. How these tiny particles start out as the extremely dense singularity is never considered.
Philosophical position – a fancy name for an assumption.
Singularity – a point of infinite density and temperature, derived from the concept that if we could view our Universe going backwards in time, every galaxy will eventually crush into some singular point. The time of this event is known as the Big Bang epoch. Note also that physics denies a point of infinite density and temperature. Infinite density denies motion while infinite temperature requires atomic motion very near the speed of light – a paradox.
I believe, using this backward examination is better explained as the conservation of mass and energy. And that all the matter or galaxies is converted, not crushed, converted into energy via Einstein’s great equation e = mc2. See Big Bang.
See also – Infinite density and temperature.
Space – The distance between any two points. Note: any two points may be designated by bits of matter or by coordinates however defined. Our limited technology to measure does not deny actual distance – conceived or measured. See also Flat Space.
Speed thru the CMB – Earth’s surrounding family of galaxies is moving toward the Virgo cluster at the Olympian speed of 600k/s (375mi/sec). But to put this speed in perspective – we are moving at snail’s speed compared to the speed of light – only 0.2%. The driving force of galactic motion comes from the Big Bang Explosion in Space.
Spontaneously – An event occurring without any causative mechanism or external forces. Without a logical basis or theory – magic.
Universe – Our Universe is all that is – all the galaxies, quasars, stars, comets, etc., and the space that contains all that we see.
Vacuum – The absence of matter. Period. – Requires an "Arena of Space."
Void – The absence of matter, an empty space.